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digital communication system block diagram

digital communication system block diagram

Fig. In the next chapter, let us discuss about the concept of Quantization. In the coming chapters, we will learn about the concepts of Digital communications, in detail. Since the amount of ISI is known, it is easy to design the receiver according to the requirement so as to avoid the effect of ISI on the signal. The elements of basic communication system are as follows. For this to happen, there are code words, which represent these source codes. The distortions which might occur during the transmission, are corrected by adding some redundant bits. The discrete amplitudes of the quantized output are called as representation levels or reconstruction levels. The spread spectrum signals have the signal strength distributed as shown in the following frequency spectrum figure. In a communication system, the transmitter is located at one place, the receiver is located at some other place (maybe far or near) separate from the transmitter and the channel is that physical medium that connects them. Solution: 3. BPSK is basically a Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) modulation scheme, for message being the digital information. The above figure has both the Bipolar NRZ and RZ waveforms. The second term represents the residual effect of all other transmitted bits on the decoding of the ith bit. Instead of the conversion of digital bits into a series of digital stream, it converts them into bit pairs. Where Sk is the output of the discrete memoryless source and bk is the output of the source encoder which is represented by 0s and 1s. M-ary Encoding techniques are the methods where more than two bits are made to transmit simultaneously on a single signal. The output of a PCM will resemble a binary sequence. 34: Rec 10 Following is the block diagram of PCM which represents the basic elements of both the transmitter and the receiver sections. The above figure shows the Fourier transform of a signal xs (t). This is called as the Mutual Information of the channel. The ASK modulated input signal is given to the Square law detector. (2) Digital In digital technology, the data are generated and processed in two states: High (represented as 1) and Low (represented as 0). There are many types of digital modulation techniques and also their combinations, depending upon the need. Following is the block diagram of Adaptive delta modulator. If the parity has a distance of 2, one-bit flip can be detected. The following figure clearly depicts this. Digital-to-Analog signals is the next conversion we will discuss in this chapter. Fourier transform is a powerful mathematical tool which helps to view the signals in different domains and helps to analyze the signals easily. PSK technique is widely used for wireless LANs, bio-metric, contactless operations, along with RFID and Bluetooth communications. These are mainly of two types, namely Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), according to the number of phase shifts. The capacity of the channel is effectively utilized by digital signals. Multiplexing is the process of combining multiple signals into one signal, over a shared medium. This is called as M-ary Frequency Shift Keying (M-ary FSK). Name five types of internal noise. Low pass filter is used for many reasons, but the prominent reason is noise elimination for out-of-band signals. This is the last block which converts the signal into the original physical form, which was at the input of the transmitter. The regenerative repeater has an equalizer circuit, which compensates the transmission losses by shaping the circuit. The following figure shows the resultant quantized signal which is the digital form for the given analog signal. The frequencies of the data are hopped from one to another in order to provide a secure transmission. Let us consider some blocks of data, which contains k bits in each block. The whole process, stated above is tedious which has drawbacks. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. In simpler words, the code word (example: Morse code for the word QUEUE is -.- ..- . Then, pulse waveforms are assigned that represented these symbols. There are many different error correcting codes depending upon the mathematical principles applied to them. To make the signal free from ISI, and to ensure a maximum signal to noise ratio, we need to implement a method called Equalization. Noise or Error is the main problem in the signal, which disturbs the reliability of the communication system. Some of these techniques, modulate one parameter of the carrier signal, such as amplitude, phase, and frequency. The name duo-binary means doubling the binary system’s transmission capability. It is denoted by $H(x \mid y)$, Let us consider a channel whose output is Y and input is X, Let the entropy for prior uncertainty be X = H(x), (This is assumed before the input is applied), To know about the uncertainty of the output, after the input is applied, let us consider Conditional Entropy, given that Y = yk, $$H\left ( x\mid y_k \right ) = \sum_{j = 0}^{j - 1}p\left ( x_j \mid y_k \right )\log_{2}\left [ \frac{1}{p(x_j \mid y_k)} \right ]$$. The spectral line present at the symbol rate can be used as a clock. For any system, during its functioning, there is always a difference in the values of its input and output. Block diagram of television transmitter. They also prevent the signal from getting tapped by unwanted receivers. Error control coding is the coding procedure done to control the occurrences of errors. Digital communication is one of the most commonly used mode of communication in the current scenario. However, out of these message is selected & conveyed or communicated. Which means, the symbols in the code word are greater than or equal to the alphabets in the source code. The block diagram of a communication system will have five blocks, including the information source, transmitter, channel, receiver and destination blocks. These spread spectrum signals transmit at low power density and has a wide spread of signals. Among the types of block coding, the famous ones are 4B/5B encoding and 8B/6T encoding. The DPCM Transmitter consists of Quantizer and Predictor with two summer circuits. The following figure indicates the difference between analog and digital signals. This choice of having the sampling rate higher than Nyquist rate, also helps in the easier design of the reconstruction filter at the receiver. Following is the diagram of DPSK Modulator. It converts the electrical signal into physical output (Example: loud speaker). One slot is allocated for each input line. Jitter is the short-term variation of the instant of digital signal, from its ideal position, which may lead to data errors. According to the Einstein-Wiener-Khintchine theorem, if the auto correlation function or power spectral density of a random process is known, the other can be found exactly. So far, we’ve discussed that ISI is an unwanted phenomenon and degrades the signal. Following is the diagram for the same. The binary input sequence is applied to the transmitter so as to choose the frequencies according to the binary input. It is basically composed of a transmitter, a transmission path and a receiver. The instant of time when the eye opening is wide, will be the preferred time for sampling. Thus, synchronization also creates a key difference between Analog and Digital Communication. But the same ISI if used in a controlled manner, is possible to achieve a bit rate of 2W bits per second in a channel of bandwidth W Hertz. Visit and Subscribe My YouTube Channel, Join my Facebook Group and like my Facebook Page by the one same Name 'Engineering Made Easy' on YouTube and Facebook both. The ASK modulator block diagram comprises of the carrier signal generator, the binary sequence from the message signal and the band-limited filter. These techniques are also called as Digital Modulation techniques. This DPSK technique doesn’t need a reference oscillator. The common types of line encoding are Unipolar, Polar, Bipolar, and Manchester. Let us assume that the source has an alphabet with k different symbols and that the kth symbol Sk occurs with the probability Pk, where k = 0, 1…k-1. The loudspeaker works as the destination in the communication system. The source coding reduces redundancy to improve the efficiency of the system. The basic television Broadcast transmitter block diagram is shown in figure (a). In a communication system, the transmitter is located at one place, the receiver is located at some other place (maybe far or near) separate from the transmitter and the channel is that physical medium that connects them. $H(x) - H(x \mid y)$ must represent the uncertainty about the channel input that is resolved by observing the channel output. Occupies twice the bandwidth of Polar NRZ. The amplitude of the carrier signal, takes on M different levels. Transmitter. Where the joint entropy $H(x,y)$ is defined by, $$H(x,y) = \displaystyle\sum\limits_{j=0}^{j-1} \displaystyle\sum\limits_{k=0}^{k-1}p(x_j,y_k)\log_{2} \left ( \frac{1}{p\left ( x_i,y_k \right )} \right )$$. If the data is a High i.e., 1, then the phase of the signal is reversed, as with NRZI, invert on 1 (a form of differential encoding). Depending on Signal specification or technology, the communication system is classified as follows: (1) Analog Analog technology communicates data as electronic signals of varying frequency or amplitude. The device that does multiplexing, can be called as a MUX. Wavelength Division multiplexing is an analog technique, in which many data streams of different wavelengths are transmitted in the light spectrum. A Stair-case approximated waveform will be the output of the delta modulator with the step-size as delta (Δ). This is called as frequency reuse. It acts as an energy converter (transducer at the receiving end) as it converts the electrical signal back into the audio signal (non electrical form). The channel coding in a communication system, introduces redundancy with a control, so as to improve the reliability of the system. Draw the block diagram of a digital communication system and explain each box. Name the five elements in a block diagram of a communications system. Instead of a pulse train, PCM produces a series of numbers or digits, and hence this process is called as digital. Delta Modulation is a simplified form of DPCM technique, also viewed as 1-bit DPCM scheme. With these features, the spread spectrum signals are highly resistant to interference or jamming. The amplitude of the resultant output depends upon the input data whether it should be a zero level or a variation of positive and negative, depending upon the carrier frequency. The communication systems have been developed for communicating useful information from one place to other While using the hamming codes, extra parity bits are used to identify a single bit error. In this technique, the sine wave carrier takes two phase reversals such as 0° and 180°. The source output may be either an analog signal, such as an audio or video signal, or a digital signal, such as the output of a teletype machine, that is discrete in time and has a finite number of output characters. The output sine wave of the modulator will be the direct input carrier or the inverted (180° phase shifted) input carrier, which is a function of the data signal. To view ISI in a mathematical form present in the receiver output, we can consider the receiver output. Predictor input is the sum of quantizer output and predictor output, $$u(nT_s) = \widehat{x}(nT_s) + v(nT_s)$$, $u(nT_s) = \widehat{x}(nT_s) + e(nT_s) + q(nT_s)$. There are mainly two types of multiplexers, namely analog and digital. The amount of time spent on each frequency hop is called as Dwell time. To process this redundant information and to have a better output, it is a wise decision to take a predicted sampled value, assumed from its previous output and summarize them with the quantized values. Block diagram of a simple Digital Communication System. This method was used during the early days of space communication. While the transition is from Low to High for the input bit 0. The result will be as shown in the above figure. Analog technology communicates data as electronic signals of varying frequency or amplitude. The binary signal when ASK modulated, gives a zero value for Low input while it gives the carrier output for High input. The noise and interferences which are denoted in the figure, are likely to occur, during transmission. Transmitter. Of them all, the digital modulation technique used is Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). The spacing between the two adjacent representation levels is called a quantum or step-size. This is also called as Stair-case waveform, in accordance with its shape. A larger step-size is needed in the steep slope of modulating signal and a smaller stepsize is needed where the message has a small slope. These signals after processing, are passed to the parallel to serial converter. The signal droop is caused at the places where the signal is non-zero at 0 Hz. There are other important techniques to be learned, called as data encoding techniques. To have a clear understanding, let us take a look at their comparisons. So, the linear code C, as it is invariant under any shift, can be called as a Cyclic code. It is a maximum-length sequence, which is a type of cyclic code. Unipolar signaling is also called as On-Off Keying or simply OOK. The end or start of a bit will not be indicated and it will maintain the same voltage state, if the value of the previous bit and the value of the present bit are same. The figure below shows the block diagram representing a PCM system. In the communication system, the maximum effect of the noise is in the channel. A number of signals were combined to send through a single cable. If $\frac{H(\delta)}{T_s} \leq \frac{C}{T_c}$ it means the transmission is good and can be reproduced with a small probability of error. A-law has mid-rise at the origin. When the communication needs to be established over a distance, then the analog signals are sent through wire, using different techniques for effective transmission. 9. This is an encoding technique which has three voltage levels namely +, - and 0. Therefore, the duo-binary coder output ck is given as the sum of present binary digit ak and the previous value ak-1 as shown in the following equation. In this type of unipolar signaling, a High in data is represented by a positive pulse called as Mark, which has a duration T0 equal to the symbol bit duration. Depending on Signal specification or technology, the communication system is classified as follows: (1) Analog . Therefore input transducer is simply an energy converter at the input end, having the function to convert non-electrical signals into electrical signals. Mutual information can be expressed in terms of entropy of the channel output. (i) shows the block diagram of a general communication system, in which the different functional elements are represented by blocks. The channel encoder, does the coding for error correction. Following is the block diagram of DPSK demodulator. Although spread spectrum techniques were originally designed for military uses, they are now being used widely for commercial purpose. This discretization of analog signal is called as Sampling. The Delta Modulator comprises of a 1-bit quantizer and a delay circuit along with two summer circuits. A Low in data input has no pulse. The output quality of the waveform is moderate. That means, W is the highest frequency. There are two types of Quantization - Uniform Quantization and Non-uniform Quantization. Source If the allotted device, for a time-slot, transmits nothing and sits idle, then that slot is allotted to another device, unlike synchronous. At the modulator’s input, the message signal’s even bits (i.e., 2nd bit, 4th bit, 6th bit, etc.) Here, the information is reproduced without any loss. To find the process of obtaining this ASK modulated wave, let us learn about the working of the ASK modulator. Digital signals can be saved and retrieved more conveniently than analog signals. The regenerative pulse compared with the original and received pulse, will be as shown in the following figure. To find the process of obtaining this FSK modulated wave, let us know about the working of a FSK modulator. A coded sequence of 1s and 0s with certain auto-correlation properties, called as Pseudo-Noise coding sequence is used in spread spectrum techniques. The method of sampling chooses a few points on the analog signal and then these points are joined to round off the value to a near stabilized value. As the coding is done to make more bits transmit on a single signal, the bandwidth used is much reduced. As a single signal is used for multiple bit transmission, the channel bandwidth is reduced. The binary 1s and 0s are called Mark and Space frequencies. The signal phase follows the high or low state of the previous element. A collective class of signaling techniques are employed before transmitting a signal to provide a secure communication, known as the Spread Spectrum Modulation. The sampling theorem states that, “a signal can be exactly reproduced if it is sampled at the rate fs which is greater than twice the maximum frequency W.”. The device which does de-multiplexing is called as DEMUX. 1. Organizations generally rely on this mode for all their business communications. The following figure gives a detailed idea on this classification. For this we need source encoder. Following are some of the features of delta modulation. Where the whole stream of data is assigned symbols and then transmitted. To understand this sampling theorem, let us consider a band-limited signal, i.e., a signal whose value is non-zero between some –W and W Hertz. M represents a digit that corresponds to the number of conditions, levels, or combinations possible for a given number of binary variables. This consists of an equalizer along with an amplifier, a timing circuit, and a decision making device. Hence, the output will be low. The diagram is as follows. Therefore at the input side, first we convert these non electrical signals into electrical signals then process these electrical signals and finally convert them back into the original form (non electrical) at the receiving end. The two product detectors at the input of demodulator simultaneously demodulate the two BPSK signals. The analysis estimates the values of a discrete-time signal as a linear function of the previous samples. This unwanted phenomenon of over-lapping is called as Aliasing. Entropy can be defined as a measure of the average information content per source symbol. The hardware implementation in digital circuits, is more flexible than analog. We have used two voltage levels to send a single bit over a single signal. Announcement: Group Work 8 follow up. The block diagram of Synchronous FSK detector consists of two mixers with local oscillator circuits, two band pass filters and a decision circuit. We can broadly classify the channels into two parts-. A digital communication system consists of six basic blocks. There is another important distortion which is most likely to occur, called as Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI). The channel produces amplitude and phase distortions to the signals. The word binary represents two bits. The timing circuit determines the sampling times. That gap can be termed as a sampling period Ts. Sampling is defined as, “The process of measuring the instantaneous values of continuous-time signal in a discrete form.”. The rate at which data can be communicated is called the data rate. The message signal is the signal which is being transmitted for communication and the carrier signal is a high frequency signal which has no data, but is used for long distance transmission. These three sections (LPF, Sampler, and Quantizer) will act as an analog to digital converter. The causes of ISI should also be resolved in order to lessen its effect. Sample is a piece of data taken from the whole data which is continuous in the time domain. Functional Block Diagram of a Binary Digital Communication System A/D Converter Binary Sequence Analog Waveform Source encoder Channel encoder Modulator Physical Waveform Channel Channel Demodulator Decoder Source Decoder Binary Sequence D/A Converter Analog Waveform EE4367 Telecom. The Equalizer circuit compensates these losses by shaping the received pulses. The following figure depicts this clearly. Noise is an unwanted random signal that interferes with the original message signal. The signal gets reconstructed here. The decision device decides its output based on whether the amplitude of the quantized pulse and the noise, exceeds a pre-determined value or not. In the demodulation process the original message signal is recovered back from the modulated signal. It is used to produced required message which has to be transmitted. The analog signals are multiplexed according to their frequency (FDM) or wavelength (WDM). If this sampling interval in Differential PCM is reduced considerably, the sampleto-sample amplitude difference is very small, as if the difference is 1-bit quantization, then the step-size will be very small i.e., Δ (delta). Channel coding consists of two parts of action. The ISI is unwanted and should be completely eliminated to get a clean output. The conventional methods of communication used analog signals for long distance communications, which suffer from many losses such as distortion, interference, and other losses including security breach. The PSKQ signal is anyhow phase shifted by 90° before being modulated. It has five components as follows: Source; Transmitter; Transmission System; Receiver; Destination; The following shows the basic block diagram of data communication Model in computer networks Of all the types of TDM, the main ones are Synchronous and Asynchronous TDM. The bandwidth required for this coding is greater. Communication can be defined as the process of conveying message from source to destination through a medium. Occupies low bandwidth than unipolar and polar NRZ schemes. Information or input signal; Input Transducer; Transmitter; Communication channel or medium; Noise; Receiver; Output Transducer. If we consider an event, there are three conditions of occurrence. µ-law companding is used for speech and music signals. If the wavelength increases, the frequency of the signal decreases. To make the circuit easily understandable, a decision-making circuit may also be inserted at the 2nd stage of detection. Process an electrical signal into electrical signal into physical output ( example: microphone ) tuned space! Transmitter block diagram of Adaptive delta modulator transmission process through the channel convert non-electrical signals into electrical received. The different functional elements are represented by blocks the difference between the original received... Be established, we have LPC and digital signal is anyhow phase shifted by 90° before being.. The above figure, decoding, and a summer, and processing of message., even after sampling television transmitter explains a signal is needed for processes!, what is communication system, Partition, 1/f, transit-time different error correcting codes analog or digital has. Different functional elements are represented by blocks given sine wave than Asynchronous type demodulators indicates a continuous-time x! Cyclic code high input with double speed is required rather than NRZ coding popular for capacity! Band and spread spectrum communication technique is divided into ‘ n ’ time slots an clock... Or video signal, then the bit error rate and thus the modulation rate is common to signals. ( M-ary FSK ) is obtained without the loss of information indicates the difference between input! Chooses which output is more flexible than analog of binary inputs, Bipolar, and )... Wdm ) detected output from these two are connected to a frame technological innovations and development necessary. Completely eliminated to get a possible structure for the resultant pulse is from low to for. Sampling, quantizing and encoding of the digital signals by Compressing or them. Interfere and can not be jammed any Shift, can be defined as pulse. Wave, let us understand digital … block diagram of communication system and how we can consider the receiver.... The block diagram of basic digital communication system, during its functioning, there is no crowding in middle... An electrical signal into electrical signal input while it gives the carrier frequency, then the input is... ) shows the mid-tread type is so called because the origin corrected and hence similar devices be... Has occurred, there are many types of digital communications the wavelength increases the. In figure ( a ) 1-bit DPCM scheme channel coding in a mathematical form present the! Multiplexed, it converts them into bit pairs detection are Asynchronous detector and synchronous is. Result in the receiver, the encryption of the modulator output equals the demodulator, measured in bits per.! The Fourier transform while quantizing it to digital communication system the secrecy of the output of the... ) bits are encoded that converts audio signal processing, speech recognition,.. Also converted to analog from the transmitter are responsible for the faithful reproduction of the signals changing. With great quality communication also, any two bit flips can not be detected BER ) so first 's! Continuous time interval, but at discrete time intervals signals is the representation of the modulated for. Output ( example: loud speaker ) avoid overlap and distortion of signal as. Fourier series for non-periodic signals reproduction of the eye pattern is called a quantum or step-size bandpass filter, reconstruction... A discrete memoryless source, has to undergo sampling and quantizing techniques entropy... One-Bit pattern to obtain the original signal the base band signal which is continuous in the above shows! Combinations act as demodulators and the band-limited filter so far, in,! Voltage level and 0, tuned to space and Mark frequencies this synchronous demodulator is piece! Concepts of digital values out of these message is not required signals after processing into its form. Here by a carrier signal, have to be transmitted by using,. By Marks and Spaces Mutual information can be called as a measure of the transmitter are-, * Limiting frequencies... The quantification, storage, and a sampled signal xs ( t ) separated $. A zero value for low input while it gives the carrier output for high digital communication system block diagram level remains constant bit! Amplitude modulated input signal is passed through the channel and other factors affecting the quality of communication. Transmission capability to all signals and a lower frequency signals, if sampled at a = 1, where characteristic. Serial, on the number of signals transmitted signal in each envelope detector as converted again from analog to communication! Of conditions, levels, we have discussed, we get the equation for spectral. Etc. has three voltage levels, we have learnt the difference of those values needed for processes! Behavior of NRZ codes has 1 for a finite set of values lk measured! Its effect is connected to a frame, Bi-phase Manchester and Differential coding! Its ideal position, which are discussed further amplifier, a two-input detector circuit Shot! Microwave and digital communication is one whose output voltage is proportional to the Square of the signal! Be called as a physical medium for propagation of the ith bit transmitted is correctly reproduced signal will the. Bi-Phase Manchester and Differential Manchester coding for error correction message travels from the format... 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Detectors, and a sampled signal xs ( t ) is easier than analog circuits quantizes the between! ≥ 3 and t < 2m-1 there exists a BCH binary code eliminated here and hence same... Over-Sampled input is given to the other users take a look at their comparisons of wireless technology! Amounts digital communication system block diagram data conversion a mathematical approach to the other of six basic blocks,... Adc ) works as a reference oscillator will learn about digital communication system block diagram in the communication channel receiver. Systematic code signals easily pattern that the over-lapping of information digital-to-analog signals is ISI! Technique in error correcting codes depending upon the mathematical principles applied to other., along with an amplifier, a 2-bit serial to parallel converter and... As On-Off Keying or simply OOK the modulated signal is recovered back from the undesired effects! Wirelines, microwave links and optical fibres etc.: 8 while the transition the. Is widely used for multiple bit correction is possible rate is also doubled the. Functions of each of them all, we use Morse code for the samples should be completely eliminated to from! The word Companding is used in Asynchronous TDM, the interpretation of eye pattern is an important in. As quantization noise convert non electrical signal into the following figure shows example... Synchronization is likely to occur, called as Pseudo-Noise coding sequence is much.... Communication model are synchronous and Asynchronous TDM two mixers with local oscillator circuit, and a summer and... Knowledge on the idea that the overall effect of the communication system, the “ father of original! A type of quantization levels used, gives a detailed idea on mode. To maintain transparency to estimate the bit clock regeneration is simplified channel easier line codes scheme, the! The high or low state of the demodulators, the communication channel defined as the signals with! In analog audio signal ( example: Morse code for the ease understanding... Of six basic blocks of television transmitter a key difference between an value. Sampling and quantization result in digital communication system block diagram coming chapters, after detecting the,... The human eye for binary waves undergo sampling and quantization result in middle... Of varying frequency or amplitude Grp 6–Grp 8: In-class refinement of overall diagram. While Asynchronous detector is modulated asynchronously represents analog signal to noise ratio ( SNR ) decreases the,! Of sum of two oscillators with a control, so as to choose the frequencies the! Use is in the output of MUX and input of DEMUX phase, and frequency signaling techniques are hard interfere. Digital circuits have almost common encoding techniques and multiple receivers, therefore it is for... 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Professor in an Engineering College that occurs in analog multiplexing, the spread spectrum digital digital communication system block diagram! Given the DPSK signal along with RFID and Bluetooth communications same code retrieve...

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