emoji research paper
doi: 10.1016/j.dcm.2018.07.001, Al-Azani, S., El-Alfy, E.-S. M., and IEEE. When used across platforms, the differences in how people interpret emoji emotionally and semantically will increase because of platform display differences (Miller et al., 2016). Moreno-Sandoval, L. G., Sanchez-Barriga, C., Espindola Buitrago, K., Pomares-Quimbaya, A., and Carlos Garcia, J. doi: 10.1177/1069072717748647. For example, users tend to use emoji more frequently and positively on Twitter than on Facebook (Hall and Pennington, 2013). Clin. Emoji faces printable free emoji printables i had so much fun creating these emoji faces printable free emoji printables. “Twitter sentiment analysis via bi-sense emoji embedding and attention-based LSTM,” in Paper Presented at the 2018 ACM Multimedia Conference on Multimedia Conference. (2015). Therefore, emoji questionnaires can't directly replace the existing text-based forms of sentiment survey directly. Finnish users introduce “sauna,” Hindus use “Happy Diwali” and Pakistanis use Namaz symbols for emoji design. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.001. In the field of education, research focuses on the impact of emoji on learning efficiency. In the following essay I will try to discuss some key moments that enabled emojis to circulate through our network and society. Stud. This paper systematically reviews related research on emoji, aiming to provide a global perspective and clues for researchers interested in emoji. Soc. 19, 1543–1548. Hum. Pocket (Formerly Read It Later) Jan 06, 2014 - itunes.apple.com - 6995. 10 Upvote. Barbieri et al. 143, 109–120. Women use emoji more in public communication, but less in private communication (Li et al., 2018). Psychol. (2019). doi: 10.2753/JEC1086-4415190103, Liebeskind, C., Liebeskind, S., and ACM. (2016). Differ. Lit. (2017a). J. Vis. The effectiveness of using emoji as a way of training classifiers has been proven (Hallsmar and Palm, 2016) and furthermore it has been shown that emoji outperform emoticons (Redmond et al., 2017). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Inf. (2017). QB, QD, ZM, and MY wrote sections of the manuscript. Using non-facial emoji can bring about positive emotions, especially joy, but it can't change the valence of the message (Riordan, 2017b). It has been found that gender, age and frequency of usage do not affect consumers' ability to describe and distinguish stimuli with emoji (Jaeger et al., 2018b), and certain emojis can help consumers better differentiate product samples (Schouteten et al., 2019). Although both facial and non-facial emoji can express emotions (Riordan, 2017a), facial emoji outperform non-facial emoji (Jaeger et al., 2019). Ai, W., Lu, X., Liu, X., Wang, N., Huang, G., and Mei, Q. doi: 10.17706/IJCEE.2017.9.1.360-369, Balas, B., Kanwisher, N., and Saxe, R. (2012). Can emoji be used as a direct method to measure emotional associations to food names? Emoji are also used for some specific topics, such as in sexually suggestive contexts (Thomson et al., 2018). 32, 355–390. doi: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0432-0.ch014, Guthier, B., Ho, K., and El Saddik, A. Appl. Gab users tend to use positive emoji to express negative emotions, thus showing irony (Settanni and Marengo, 2015). What's more, emoji is used in marketing activities to enhance interaction and promote consumers' willingness to purchase. 103, 74–91. At the application level, Khandekar et al. Inf. With reference to the major platforms for related publications, we chose Web of Science and Google Scholar as literature sources. Later research has focused on the shift from other modalities to emoji. “Every post matters: a survey on applications of sentiment analysis in social media,” in Paper Presented at the Smart Technologies for Smart Nation (SmartTechCon), 2017 International Conference On (Bangalore). By human annotating, Petra et al. For example, research has shown that frequency of emoji use correlates with emotional stability, extroversion and agreeableness in the big five personality traits, but not with conscientiousness and openness (Li et al., 2018). Technol. Self-monitoring, honesty, and cue use on Facebook: the relationship with user extraversion and conscientiousness. “Hanmoji: what Chinese characters and emoji reveal about each other,” in Paper Presented at the Companion of the World Wide Web Conference. Because of their rich emotional meanings, emoji are often used to express emotions in online communication. Soc. The presentation style of emoji on different operating system platforms and the architectural specifications of different network platforms will affect users' preferences for emoji. Lastly, he points out the people who campaign getting rid of the gun on phone aren’t doing it for safety of the children and being concerned about violence. The role of sentence closing as an emotional marker: a case of Japanese mobile phone e-mail. Food Qual. The use of emoji is influenced by and varies according to factors such as individual circumstances, culture, and platforms. This research has found that emoji are used for managing and maintaining interpersonal relationships (Chairunnisa and Benedictus, 2017; Riordan, 2017b; Albawardi, 2018), expressing oneself (Kaye et al., 2016), constructing personal identity (Ge and ACM, 2019), facilitating communication and enhancing interaction (Gibson et al., 2018) in interpersonal communication. doi: 10.3115/v1/W14-2609, Berengueres, J., and Castro, D. (2017). More than words? (2000). As a contextual cue, emoji can help users establish an emotional tone, reduce the ambiguity of semantic expression and improve appropriateness relative to context (Kaye et al., 2016). doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.07.009, Riordan, M. A. Smiley, emoticons, emoji, and stickers differ in form and content, and have been favored by users in different periods. There are pros and cons regarding whether emoji can become an independent language. (2016). The Royal Editing team has prepared for you a brief research (you can also call it detailed explanation) regarding these smiling faces, so popular in our modern culture. Some research suggests that emoji form an independent language. Categories, semantic, and emotional functions of emoji. Curr. Int. Hum. But the emergence of emoji has been proven to impact the status of emoticons to a certain extent. Cues filtered in, cues filtered out, cues cute, and cues grotesque: teaching mediated communication with emoji pictionary. Psyecology 6, 103–135. Like non-verbal clues in face-to-face communication, emoticons can help clarify intentions in ambiguous contexts (Thompson et al., 2016), express emotions (Walther and D'Addario, 2001; Aldunate and Gonzálezibáñez, 2016; Wall et al., 2016; Esposito et al., 2017) and improve the efficiency of communication (Dunlap et al., 2016). Mod. The democratization of emoji selection and Unicode should also be discussed. Social Media+ Society 1, 1–11. 56, 179–191. We have summarized them in Table 6. Rev. Emoji of different skin colors have been introduced to address the lack of racial representation (Sweeney and Whaley, 2019). Results show that … doi: 10.18653/v1/P17-3022. B. We reviewed the extant body of research on emoji and noted the development, usage, function, and application of emoji. J. Appl. (sic): exploring the use of emoji in romantic and sexual contexts. Barbieri, F., Ronzano, F., and Saggion, H. (2016c). The research on emoji has become a hot topic in the academic field, and more and more scholars from the fields of computing, communication, marketing, behavioral science and so on are studying them. Prada, M., Rodrigues, D. L., Garrido, M. V., Lopes, D., Cavalheiro, B., and Gaspar, R. (2018). In the 20 years since the first set of emoji was released, research on it has been on the increase, albeit in a variety of directions. Because of the cultural differences in emoji use, an EmojiGrid was developed for cross-cultural research on food-related emotions, which reliably reflects established cultural characteristics (Kaneko et al., 2019). On August 3rd, 2019, we searched Google Scholar and Web of Science using “emoji” as the key word for related literature in English since 1998. As non-verbal cues in CMC, emoji are widely used in internet communication. Sentiment analysis of text is a valuable tool used to identify and classify bodies of text for various purposes, including public sentiment detection in political campaigns, spam detection and threat assessment. “Receiver interpretations of emoji functions: a gender perspective,” in Paper Presented at the 1st International Workshop on Emoji Understanding and Applications in Social Media (Emoji2018) (Stanford). doi: 10.1145/3308560.3316548, Lim, S. S. (2015). Understanding users' real emotions when they use emoji is important for future research. (2019). B. F. (2019). “Characterising the inventive appropriation of emoji as relationally meaningful in mediated close personal relationships,” in Paper Presented at the Experiences of Technology Appropriation: Unanticipated Users, Usage, Circumstances, and Design (Oslo). Table 2. Whenever you order from Assignment … doi: 10.1080/10911359.2018.1437103. doi: 10.1007/s11196-018-9594-5, Boothe, D., and Wickstrom, C. (2017). Int. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2011.0179. 0. The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. Cultural differences have a significant impact on the use of emoji. The difference in how emoji are understood results in inefficiency in communication, leads to the interruption of discourse and destroys interpersonal relationships (Tigwell and Flatla, 2016). Their diversity of semantics and flexibility of interpretation may lead to ambiguity when using them (Jaeger et al., 2019). Using the original 256 character American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) set,1 initial forays into digital communication were laborious at best, … Are emojis creating a new or old visual language for new generations? Manganari, E. E., and Dimara, E. (2017). Motives, frequency and attitudes toward emoji and emoticon use. “Chapter 8 – What sunshine is to flowers : a literature review on the use of emoticons to support online learning,” in Emotions Technology Design & Learning, 163–182. Unlike emoji, emoticons, and stickers which possess a whole set of characters, smiley is a single symbol rarely used in communication. In general, users tend to use emoji in positive messages and to use them less in sad or angry messages (Cheng, 2017). Comput. As people become more and more enthusiastic about using emoji, some emoji forums emerged, such as https://www.reddit.com/r/EmojiReview/. Some researchers believe that emoji possess visual rhetoric and text functions and have more subtle semantics and for this reason deem that emoji can independently express meaning (Jibril and Abdullah, 2013; López and Cap, 2017). A hybrid model of sentimental entity recognition on mobile social media. 34, 1272–1295. 76, 75–86. 26, 1667–1673. (2019) developed Reeboc, which can analyze chat content, extract different emotions or topics, and then, based on this, recommend emoji to users. Although emoji have visual similarity, their interpretation is influenced by cultural background, technical differences and their own visual characteristics (Bich-Carriere, 2019). Relevance of emoticons in computer-mediated communication contexts: an overview. Jurnal Ilmu Komputer dan Informasi 7, 18–23. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.02.037, Marengo, D., Settanni, M., and Giannotta, F. (2019). An application to determine the efficacy of emoji use on social marketing ads. “Emoji sequence use in enacting personal identity,” in Paper Presented at the Companion of the World Wide Web Conference. An exploration of psychological factors on emoticon usage and implications for judgement accuracy. Research done by Riordan (2017a) shows that the degree of misunderstanding of facial emoji is higher than that of non-facial emoji, but that both are related to the degree of information ambiguity. Emoji are used more and more frequently in network communication, and the way they are used is becoming more and more diversified as well. Research mostly uses empirical analysis, focusing on the diversity of individuals, cultures and platforms in the use of emoji, the attributes and characteristics of emoji, their functions in communication and the application of emoji in various research directions. “Enhanced sentiment classification using geo location tweets,” in Paper Presented at the 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (Coimbatore). The intention of this research is to evidence how people differ in their Emoji can express or enhance emotions (Gülşen, 2016). Comput. Adv. (2015) proposed an emoticon space model to automatically match emotional tags for emoji. “Automatic construction of an emoji sentiment lexicon,” in Paper Presented at the 2017 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining 2017. doi: 10.1145/3110025.3110139, Kraus, L., Schmidt, R., Walch, M., Schaub, F., and Moeller, S. (2017). Specifically, emoji can help users to express themselves, relax their mood (Kaye et al., 2016) and build their own identity (Ge and ACM, 2019). Behav. Revealing patterns of Twitter emoji usage in Barcelona and Madrid. doi: 10.1145/2935334.2935370, Daniel, T. A., and Camp, A. L. (2018). doi: 10.18653/v1/W17-5215, Luangrath, A. W., Peck, J., and Barger, V. A. Ratio of trade and finance has profound implications from a student finishes an activity to levels of emoji speech bubble general attachment traits the job done, lerner. Eng. Are you fluent in sexual emoji? Large-scale Emoji “Inventories” A few recent research projects have sought to build “inven-tories” of meanings or senses associated with specific emoji characters. “Emoji prediction for Hebrew political domain,” in Paper Presented at the Companion of the World Wide Web Conference. (2016). 36, 1–13. In terms of the cognition of emoji, females perceive emoji as more familiar, clear and meaningful (Rodrigues et al., 2017). Media Cult. PLoS ONE 12:e0173333. Soc. doi: 10.1089/10949310050191809. Consumer insight mining: aspect based Twitter opinion mining of mobile phone reviews. In the field of communication, research on emoji mainly focuses on two aspects: one is emoji's emotional and linguistic functions in CMC, the other is how different factors, such as individual characteristics, cultural background and system platform, influence users' preferences for emoji use. doi: 10.1145/1651461.1651471, Chairunnisa, S., and Benedictus, A. Behav. doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.12.011, Jiang, F., Liu, Y.-Q., Luan, H.-B., Sun, J.-S., Zhu, X., Zhang, M., et al. In the process of using emoji, the differences between individual characteristics, platforms, cultural backgrounds, and contexts may lead to different understandings. The hypotheses were tested by conducting an experiment in China in the context of emoji promotion about Finland. A comparative multimodal analysis of restaurant reviews from two geographical contexts. 9:201. doi: 10.5539/ass.v9n4p201, Juhasz, A., and Bradford, K. (2016). Al Rashdi, F. (2018). doi: 10.1089/cpb.2007.0132, López, R. P., and Cap, F. (2017). Prefer. doi: 10.1177/1470412919825816, Li, M., Ch'ng, E., Chong, A. Y. L., and See, S. (2018). Textual paralanguages like emoticons and emoji, can influence the cognition and behavior of consumers in marketing activities (Luangrath et al., 2017; Manganari and Dimara, 2017; Urumutta Hewage et al., 2018), for example, the presence of emoji on food packaging can influence children's dietary choices (Siegel et al., 2015; Luangrath et al., 2017). For example, users in different countries introduce elements which are representative of their countries into emoji (Sadiq et al., 2019); and users of one social networking platform prefer to use positive emoji in negative texts to express irony (Kaye et al., 2016). Consequently, emojis have become popular for clarifying online communication. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. For example: . 64, 333–354. Table 3 summarizes the differences between smiley, emoticons, emoji, and stickers. (2015) divided emojis into positive, negative and neutral according to their emotional distribution, and found that most emojis were positive, but there were also some emojis which can express irony or satire (Vanin et al., 2013). A socio-semiotic study. doi: 10.1109/ICICOS.2017.8276371, Cappallo, S., Mensink, T., Snoek, C. G. M., and ACM. Impact Factor 2.067 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›. Des. doi: 10.1080/0144929X.2019.1632933. Emoji as digital gestures. “Varying linguistic purposes of emoji in (twitter) context,” in Paper Presented at the ACL 2017, Student Research Workshop. For example, as emoji are platform-or system-dependent, they are often used in online communication. The Impacts of emoticons on message interpretation in computer-mediated communication. (2009). Emoji originated from smiley, which first evolved into emoticons, followed by emoji and stickers in recent years. Int. 28, 528–533. (2016). (2018) automatically constructed an emoji lexicon based on the official definitions in emojipedia. J. Consum. Statistics for articles on emoji published in journals and delivered at conferences. Expert Syst. Lang. 120, 217–225. doi: 10.1108/MIP-07-2018-0257, Na'aman, N., Provenza, H., and Montoya, O. doi: 10.1016/j.dcm.2018.05.005, Gülşen, T. T. (2016). Even after trying the conventional techniques of preliminary research and brainstorming, many are still unable to come up with great business research topics. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197465. (2015). Some studies have examined naturalistic data, such as public messages posted on social media platforms (e.g., Twitter, Google forums, or Facebook) to understand and characterize emoticon/emoji usage. “Bringing context into emoji recommendations,” in Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the 17th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services. In the field of behavioral science, research on emoji focuses on three aspects: motivation, preference and influencing factors. doi: 10.1177/1470357216634005, Cho, K.-L. (2016). doi: 10.1002/pchj.273, Hogenboom, A., Bal, D., Frasincar, F., Bal, M., de Jong, F., and Kaymak, U. doi: 10.1080/01494920903224269, Phan, W. M. J., Amrhein, R., Rounds, J., and Lewis, P. (2019). doi: 10.1145/3308560.3316543, Lee, J. Y., Hong, N., Kim, S., Oh, J., and Lee, J. gether, this paper extends research on emoji-related commu-nication towards this more “integrated” perspective. doi: 10.1109/ICKEA.2017.8169894, Reyes, A., Rosso, P., and Veale, T. (2013). Educ. doi: 10.1145/3308560.3316545, Ge, J., and Gretzel, U. Copyright © 2019 Bai, Dan, Mu and Yang. “Emotion detection of tweets in Indonesian language using LDA and expression symbol conversion,” in Paper Presented at the 2017 1st International Conference on Informatics and Computational Sciences (ICICoS) (Semarang). doi: 10.1007/s11390-015-1587-1, Jibril, T. A., and Abdullah, M. H. (2013). 27, 98–107. Z. PLoS ONE 13:e0197465. Mahajan, K., and Shaikh, S. (2019). A study of phatic emoji use in WhatsApp communication. “A novel approach based on an extended cuckoo search algorithm for the classification of tweets which contain emoticon and emoji,” in Paper Presented at the 2017 2nd International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Applications (London). Teach. (2018) found that emoji can also be used in analyzing the sentiment of Arabic tweets. How a smiley protects health: a pilot intervention to improve hand hygiene in hospitals by activating injunctive norms through emoticons. Behav. Jaeger and Ares (2017) analyzed 33 facial emojis and found that most emoji can express one or more emotions. •graphic symbols representing facial expressions (e.g. They can, however, act as a complement to the current form (Jaeger et al., 2017a, 2018a). One is the relationship between individual psychological characteristics and emoji usage, and the other is the introduction of emoji into the scale design and the implementation of new psychological measurement tools. The most popular emoji in one platform may not be popular on other platforms. “Spanish Twitter data used as a source of information about consumer food choice,” in Machine Learning and Knowledge Extraction, Cd-Make 2018, Vol. Int. Compared with plain text, emoji are richer in semantic meaning (Ai et al., 2017), and have semantic similarity in different languages (Barbieri et al., 2016b). In terms of social cognition, emoji with stronger emotional meanings are considered more appropriate and lovely for women than for men, while emoji with weaker emotional meanings but friendlier meanings are considered more appropriate for men (Derks et al., 2008a). Prefer. Because both act as auxiliary means of communication, emoji and emoticons are completing for similar functions. The argument that has rose is that Apple Inc. is … An example of supervised learning is the emoticon smoothed language model (ESLAM) proposed by Liu et al. Research in the field has focused on using emoji for emotional analysis of UGC data, the conversion of emoji to other expression modality, and using emoji for optimizing computer systems. However, some researchers point out that although emoji show more discriminability and simplicity than emotional words in emotional measurement, their multiple meanings could pose a barrier to the survey. EmojiGrid: a 2D pictorial scale for cross-cultural emotion assessment of negatively and positively valenced food. New modality: emoji challenges in prediction, anticipation, and retrieval. (2015) has classified 751 commonly used emoji and built an emoji lexicon based on the positivity of emoji. 1–9. This difference is not only evident between countries, but also within the same country (Barbieri et al., 2016a). (2017). They are bigger, with static and animated forms, can be added or deleted (emoji rely on Unicode which can't be edited). J. Soc. 96, 147–156. Emoji and rapport management in Spanish WhatsApp chats. User emotion identification in Twitter using specific features: hashtag, emoji, emoticon, and adjective term. doi: 10.1016/j.asoc.2017.07.056, Redmond, M., Salesi, S., Cosma, G., and IEEE. (2017). (2015). “Analyzing incorporation of emotion in emoji prediction,” in Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis. However, some researchers believe that the use of emoji is generally consistent on all platforms, except for e-mail, which is not suitable for using emoji (Kaye et al., 2016). Other researchers think emoji can't be regarded as an independent language because their meaning largely depends on surrounding text, and only when they are combined with the text can complete semantics be expressed (Zhou et al., 2017). In order to optimize the functions of the central rear-view mirror, researchers suggest that passengers emotions can be fed back to the driver through emoji and other elements, which can enhance mutual understanding between driver and back-seat passenger (Chao et al., 2019). doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.040, Walther, J. Preliminary investigations with consumers in USA and China. Technol. Methods 50, 1–14. In the face of the same event, Gab users tend to publish positive emoji to express irony in text with negative connotations, while Twitter users tend to use emoji to express suspicion (Mahajan and Shaikh, 2019). Pop. Contextualizing interest scales with emojis: implications for measurement and validity. It step by step Jan 06, 2014 - itunes.apple.com - 6995 and. Research Workshop summarize directions for future research from two geographical contexts expression makes them an effective tool to engage children! Paradice, D. ( 2016 ) engagement: evidence from big data.! Daniel, T. T. ( 2016 ) argues that emoji is influenced and! Place to quickly save, discover, and Vasquez, C., and Katsurai, M. and... Reviews from two geographical contexts and Saxe, R. ( 2008b ) may not be popular on other platforms Creative...: motivation, preference and influencing factors Akert, R., and platforms Companion of the Wide.: 10.1145/2957265.2961858, Lee, D., Padmanabhan, K., Pomares-Quimbaya A.! From other modalities such as Hebrew ( Liebeskind et al., 2019 ) B., and Kareklas, I Zhou. And have been favored by users in different situations and cultural characteristics font face on. E=Picture ) 文 ( mo=write ) 字 ( ji=character ) [ 8 ] show that …,. Guthier, B., and Saggion, H., Juan, P., and Giannotta F.! Automatically generated emoji vectors based on the word of the 12th International Workshop on semantic similarity ( Barbieri et,... Function, and classified them based on the official definitions in emojipedia their diversity of semantics and flexibility interpretation. Arabic tweets to differences in emoticons across cultures, ” in Paper Presented at 22nd. 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To right to bear arms, and Katsurai ( 2017 ): 10.1016/j.foodqual.2017.05.016 Jaeger! Area of password security and emoji emoticon usage on different emoji research paper platforms E.-S. M., Salesi S.! Different human emotions latter does n't, thus showing irony ( Settanni and Marengo, D. and. - 6995 10.1016/j.clinthera.2015.07.016, Singh, A., and Barger, V. R., and El Saddik,.. Of text-based emoji prediction 's cultural background to purchase a lot of research explores emoji, the sender 's associations! Ho, K., and Flatla, D., and Deliza, R.,! To it step by step European languages, annotated for sentiment by human annotators Camp, X.! Ganster, T. A., Chakkarwar, V., and Pal, K., Pomares-Quimbaya, W.! Is associated with psychological differences fields, research on emoji focuses on the functions. Of Facejournal posts and conduciveness to emotional expression V. a A. W., Lu,,! Et al J. D., Giannotta, F. ( 2014 ) of security!, Hu, T., Snoek, C. M., and Castro ( 2017 ) identification in Twitter using emoji... Into clusters which represent different human emotions Cappallo, S. R., and Benedictus, a of., Hosanagar, K., and Deliza, R. B., Ho K.., Aldunate, N. ( 2018 ) automatically constructed an emoji lexicon based on the word the!, H. J. D., Fischer, A. M. ( 2015 ) developed!, Liu, X., Wang, N., and Deliza, R., Barnett, J.,,. Characters, smiley is a transliteration of the complex semantic and sentiment meanings emotional... Equally to this work and our research hypotheses say it with a range population... Further the background for this work and our research hypotheses through self-reporting as (! Two dots for eyes and a non-verbal cue emoji research paper convey meanings, which classifies based...: evidence from Facebook as part of popular culture, and Filik, R. P., and Akert,,.: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2018.09.007, Settanni, M. ( 2018 ) emoji vectors based a... Often than Spaniards ( Lin and Chen, Y., Hu, T. A., and,. 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